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Saturday, 31 March 2012

- OZONE: SPINAL OSTEOCHONDROSIS


Neurological Appearances of
Spinal Osteochondrosis

Spinal osteochondrosis is considered a chronic systemic disease of connective tissue which development requires genetic disposition and manifestation - exposure to exo- and endogenous   factors. Among the first ones there are numbered physical, chemical and infectious agents, and among the second ones - certain constitutional variants, spinal anomalies, peculiar function of motional system, associated diseases of spine and other organs (V.P.Veselovsky, 1991).
This multi-factor disease first affects intervertebral disc and then other sections of locomotor apparatus and nervous system (O.G.Kogan et al., 1983).
Among the neurological appearances of spinal osteochondrosis vertebrogenic pain syndrome is of greatest importance for adequate evaluation of efficiency of the treatment performed. This syndrome consists of 4 components: muscle pain, fascial-ligamentous pain, joint pain, discogenic pain.
According to the above-mentioned, the conservative treatment of patients with neurological appearances of spinal osteochondrosis should be complex, differential and based on the main pathogenetic mechanisms of disease. The therapeutic measures should be focused on both the vertebral area of affection and extravertebral appearances.
There are 5 main principles of therapy for vertebrogenic diseases of nervous system:
1.exclusion of adverse static-dynamic loads;
2.stimulation of muscle corset;
3.phase and complete exposure;
4.decrease in pain feelings;
5.careful character of therapeutic measures.

The latter 4 principles can be fully realized by methods of regional (local) ozone therapy specially developed for neurological appearances of cervical and lumbar osteochondrosis.
Recommended methods of regional (local) ozone therapy:
·   Minor autohaemotherapy with ozone;
·   Paravertebral ozone injections;
·   Subcutaneous ozone injections into the biologically active points;
·   Intramuscular ozone injections into the trigger points.

Ozone therapy was used within the complex treatment including non-steroid anti-inflammatory medicines, vitamins of B group, sedative preparations, therapeutic exercises.
The approximate schema of sanogenetic reactions developed in patients with neurological appearances of spinal osteochondrosis through regional ozone therapy includes:
1.Decrease in the irritation of sinuvertebral nerve ends due to the decreased action of: 


a) the discirculatory factor, a decrease in the edema of surrounding tissues;

b) the dislocation factor due to partial restoration of amortization properties of the affected disc, as a result, improvement of its metabolism and activation of trophic influences;

c) the aseptic-inflammatory factor induced by the synthesis of prostaglandins as inflammation mediators and activation of cellular immunity contributing to fast elimination of "foreign" components. As a result, it comes to a significant decrease in afferent flow from periphery to CNS.c) aseptic-inflammatory factor induced by the synthesis of prostaglandins as inflammation f cellular immunity contributing to fast elimination of "foreign" components. As a result, it comes to a significant decrease in afferent flow from periphery to CNS.

2.Actual antinociceptive action of ozone therapy connected with:

a) direct oxidation of algopeptides;

b) a decrease in underoxidated products in spasmodic muscles;

c) an increase in excitability threshold of pain receptor membranes (membrane-stabilizing effect).c) an increase in excitability threshold of pain receptor membranes (membrane-stabilizing effect).

3. Improvement in the function of spinal segmental apparatus manifested as:

a) acceleration of formation of a new motional stereotype;

b) activation of spinal mechanisms of pain control;

c) normalization of vegetative-trophic basis of motional act.c) normalization of vegetative-trophic basis of motional act.


The above-mentioned can be considered a substitution for the use of regional ozone therapy in the complex treatment of patients with neurological appearances of spinal osteochondrosis.



- OZONE: NEUROPATHIES


Compressive Ischemic Neuropathies
Tunnel compressive ischemic neuropathy is a pathology of nerve trunk caused by its local irritation, compression and ischemia in anatomically and biochemically adverse conditions of nerve location (V.S.Lobzin, A.F.Rahimdzanov, N.M.Zhulev, 1988). This definition alone makes it clear that compressive ischemic neuropathy (CIN) is a polyetiologic disease. Considering the leading role of nerve trunk ischemia in the pathogenesis of CIN, for improvement of blood circulation, oxygen supply and function of compressed nerves it is advisable to use ozone therapy.
Recommended methods of ozone therapy:
·   Intravenous drop-by-drop infusions of ozonated saline solution.
Positive clinical results were received in 95% of cases with ozone therapy as a significant decrease in complaints, normalization of provocative tests, improvement of sensitivity in the zone of innervation of affected nerve. Owing to the considerable decrease or disappearance of night paresthesia of hands after the course of ozone therapy, it comes to normalization of night sleep, improvement of general state, increase in workability. Ozone therapy in the form of ozonated saline drips didn't cause any deterioration of the patients' state, side effects or complications (Yu.P.Potehina, 1997).
The improvement came as a rule after 3-6 procedures. After all, at the end of one course of ozone therapy the inhibition of lipid peroxidation processes and activation of antioxidant activity took place according to the data of biochemiluminescence analysis of blood plasma and determination of lipid peroxidation products.
The achieved results of treatment kept on average for 7 months. So, it is recommended to provide the patients with compressive ischemic neuropathies prophylactic courses of ozone therapy including 5-12 ozonated saline drips every two days, two times per year, in spring and autumn.
Summarizing the investigated and well-known mechanisms of action of ozone, ozone therapy in the form of ozonated saline drips is involved into the pathogenesis of compressive ischemic neuropathies at several stages:
1.Parenteral ozone therapy facilitates an increase in the partial oxygen pressure of arterial blood through the oxygen saturation of both plasma and erythrocyte hemoglobin (R.Chiong et al., 1990), which can induce a decrease in both general and local tissue hypoxia, activation of gas metabolism in the zone of ischemia.
2.Ozone is able to stimulate glucose metabolism in the erythrocytes, formation of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate - substance contributing to the more complete oxygen release by oxyhemoglobin and shift of oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right (O.Rokitansky, 1982). Thus, more oxygen is released to the tissues, particularly affected by ischemia.
3.Owing to the interaction with corpuscle membrane lipids, ozone increases the deformability of the erythrocytes and decreases their aggregation and thus improves fluidity of blood in micro flow bed.
4.The ozonated saline drips improve peripheral blood circulation through the elimination of arteriolar spasm, increasing pulse blood filling and improving venous blood outflow to the limbs. Ozone can facilitate a decrease in arteriolar spasm and opening of non-functional capillaries thus activating microcirculation in the ischemized tissues.
5.Ozone used in therapeutic doses moderately decreases blood coagulation by shifting the values of coagulogram to the bottom level of norm, particularly in cases of initial tendency to hypercoagulation. This can help to decrease or prevent intravascular coagulation of blood, particularly in case of venous stagnation and ischemia. By inducing moderate hypocoagulation in the form of increase of activated recalcification time and activated thromboplastin time, decrease of platelet aggregation and activation of fibrinolysis, ozone is able to prevent thrombosis at the areas of decelerated blood flow and facilitates the lysis of produced small thromboses thus improving the rheological properties of blood.
6.Thanks to the improved blood circulation, particularly in micro flow bed, ozone possibly decreases tissue edema and tissue tension in the canal.
Thus, ozone actively involved into the pathogenesis of compressive ischemic neuropathies stimulates the restoration of affected nerve primarily through the improvement of microcirculation and rheology of blood. Ozone therapy without eliminating the main causes of nerve trunk compression decreases hypoxia and activates oxygen metabolism in the ischemized tissues. Such a pathogenetic action of ozonated isotonic solution is very important for nervous tissue where only aerobic processes can take place.
Ozone used by parenteral route can directly or indirectly influence on some mechanisms of formation of compressive ischemic neuropathies and at the same time break "adverse circles" of pathogenesis as well as optimize oxygen homeostasis in the compressed nerve trunk.

- OZONE: SCLEROSIS


Disseminated Sclerosis
Disseminated sclerosis is numbered to the group of demyelinating diseases of nervous system and characterized by the young contingent of patients, peculiar epidemiology and pathomorphology, difficulty in diagnosis and treatment.
The essence of disease is not limited by the formation of sclerotic plaques. The pathological process also involves immune system, different sides of metabolism, structures of vegetative nervous system (V.A.Karlov, 1990: E.I.Gusev et al., 1997; B.T.Haidarov, 1998).
According to most of the investigators devoted to this problem, disseminated sclerosis is a virus-induced disease. The leading role belongs to measles virus. The genetical determination of this disease is proven.
The complicacy of polysystemic, multi-level disturbances developed in this disease allows to determine some sanogenetic targets for efficient use of ozone therapy:
1.immunocorrection with accent on the cellular link of immunity;
2."leveling" of genetically determined and secondary developed disturbances of intracellular neurons' metabolism;
3.stabilization of myelin as biological membrane;
4.normalization of biochemical parameters and gas composition of blood;
5.restoration of "trophic control" on the part of vegetative nervous system.
The clinical investigation included 67 patients with disseminated sclerosis and 15 volunteers. Age of the investigated patients ranged from 19 to 49 years. Among the patients there were 39 women and 28 men. Average duration of disease was 3,8 years.
All the investigated patients were divided into 4 groups: 2 main (test) and 2 control (placebo). The treatment of patients of the 1st main group (n=22) along with standard therapeutic complex (prednisolon 30-60 mg/24 hrs, vitamins B, C, E, phytin, curantyl, ATP, T-activin, nootropil) included intravenous infusions of ozonated saline solution with ozone concentration. The patients of the 2nd main group (n=23) along with the above-mentioned standard treatment received ozone therapy in the form of intravenous infusions of ozonated saline solution in combination with per os intake of ozonated suspension of enterosorbent "Ensoral" in distilled water. This schema of treatment was based on the evidence about the efficiency of enterosorbents for patients with disseminated sclerosis as well as on the assumption about possible mutual potentiation of detoxication and immunomodulating effects of ozone and enterosorbents used in combination. And the great area of sorbing surface of "Ensoral" with structure C - C - C - C was considered a prerequisite for a certain "depot" of ozone within the whole gastroenteric tract. The selected ozone concentration is usually used for enteral methods of ozone therapy.
The received results have shown that the second variant of multimodality therapy has proved to be the most effective in the treatment of patients with disseminated sclerosis. The use of the above-mentioned treatment schema facilitated a decrease in the resistance to the performed therapy though the decrease in non-responders; prevention of increased deficit of T-lymphocytes (particularly T-suppressors) connected with the use of glucocorticoide hormones (parallel to regression of B-lymphocytes); normalization of vegetative tone in the cardiovascular system; increase in the transmission rate of nervous impulses through peripheral nerves.

- OZONE: MIGRANE


Migraine


Migraines are generally caused by seratonins released by red cell plateletes. Certain chemicals causes their release. A study in Italy found that 25% of migraines are also caused by the bacteria, H pylori.


Application of ozone therapy was based on the notions of a significant role of lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of migraine attacks. A therapy was performed in form of intravenous infusions of the ozonized physiologic solutions with ozone, concentration 1200 micrograms/l; a therapy course included 8-9 procedures.
The investigation included 68 patients: most of them had migraine without aura (64%); migraine with aura was diagnosed in 36% of cases. In the structure of aura visual disturbances and paresthesia were dominant. One patient had ophtalmoplegic migraine.
Average age of patients was 26,3 years. The women predominated over the men (71%). The frequency of migraine attack ranged from 2-3 per week to 5-6 per year. Most of the cases showed one-sided character of headache (73% of the investigated patients). In 32% of the patients paroxysms were associated with tension headache in the interictal period.
Ozone therapy was included into the complex treatment of 50 patients of the main (experimental) group.
Recommended methods of ozone therapy:
·   Intravenous drop-by-drop infusions of ozonated saline solution.
Along with neurological status, the results of treatment were evaluated on the basis of thorough examination of patients including the investigation into the cerebral neurodynamics, haemodynamics, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm, intensity of headache, anxiety, lipid peroxidation processes, antioxidant activity of blood plasma.
The results of dynamic observation have shown that the use of ozonated saline drips as a component of complex treatment increases its efficiency by 29%. The number of discharged patients with good therapeutic effect in main group (87%) was reliably higher than in control group (61%, p<0,05). The absence of non-responders among the patients received ozone therapy allows considering the latter as a reliable method of preventing resistance to the provided therapy in this contingent of patients.
Ozonated saline drips used in the interictal period ensured in 58% of the patients no migraine paroxysms within 4 to 8 months (in average 6,2 months) after their discharge from hospital. In other 19% of the patients the duration of attackless interval was limited to 3 months. However, after repeated migraine attacks, the frequency of attacks and intensity of headache were considerably less (on average 4,3+ 0,31 points according to the visual analog scale) than before the treatment.
The experience in the use of ozonated saline drips during the migraine paroxysm points out a clear correlation between the time from the beginning of headache to the point when ozone therapy was performed and its efficiency. As sooner the procedure was performed as less intensive was headache in further.
Basing on the received results it is obvious that the use of ozonated saline drips both as a component of complex treatment and as a monotherapy allows achieving a stable clinical effect in a relatively short time. The performance of repeated courses of ozone therapy with frequency 2-3 times per year allows to improve considerably the life quality of patients with migraine, significantly reduce the time of their disability.
The use of the above-mentioned methods of ozone therapy is more effective in the interictal period, but the method of ozonated saline drips can be included into the list of basic measures used for stopping migraine attack.
The efficiency of ozone therapy in the given contingent of patients was connected with the influence of the secondary products of ozone on the key pathogenetic mechanisms. The improvement of conditions for neuron's membrane function, normalization of rheological properties of blood through ozone therapy can be successfully added to immediate analgesic effect of ozonated saline drips through the interference of basic mediators of noci- and antinociceptive brain systems into the metabolism.

- OZONE IN ONCOLOGY




OZONE IN THE ONCOLOGY

Introduction
N. Altman (1995) summarizing the available experimental and clinical experience of world practice of ozone therapy in his book "Oxygen healing therapies" wrote that ozone has been used in the oncology for about ten years.
The works dedicated to investigations into the action of ozone in malignant tumors were made by the scientists from Germany, Cuba, the USA, Italy, Switzerland and have been recently continued in Russia.
The foreign researches based their attempts at using ozone in the oncology on two discoveries.
The first discovery was made by O. Warburg (1966, Germany) that the key reason for development of tumor is oxygen deficiency on the cellular level.
The second discovery made by J. Varro (1974, Germany) showed intolerance of peroxides by tumor cells. In this connection there was made a supposition that ozone and hydrogen peroxide can affect metabolism of cancer cells. However, the works of J. Varro as well as the results of the earlier investigations made by the Russian scientists A.I. Zhuravleva, B.N. Tarusova (1962) that the content of peroxides in tumors is decreased as compared with normal tissues were not put to use in clinical oncology.
In 1980 F. Sweet et al. furnished proofs about a tumor-inhibitory effect of ozone in vitro. The investigations into the influence of certain ozone concentrations on the development of cultures of tumor cells received from malignant tumors of lung, mammary gland and uterus have established the suppression of neoplasma growth in 90% of cases. At the same time, it has been pointed out to a slight ability of tumor cells to compensate the oxidative stress induced by ozone in comparison with normal cells (Sweet, 1980). M. Arnan, L. DeVries (1983) investigated the influence of ozone on carcinoma inoculated to mice. The results of that experiment showed that the animals exposed to ozone lived by 30-40 days longer that the animals of control group. H. Karlic et al. (1987) established the selective suppression of tumor cell growth of ovarian carcinoma, ovarian adenocarcenoma and endometrial carcinoma. The similar results were demonstrated by K. Zanker and Krozek (1989).
In the conditions of normal cell respiration reactive-inert molecular oxygen converts to active metastable form only through enzyme-substrate complexes of electronic-transport chain of mitochondrions. In cancer cell this enzymatic chain is inactivated and destroyed. The use of ozone results in the formation of active oxygen metabolites that can react with hydrogen substrate and put into action the disturbed end oxidation of tumor cell thereby activating the respiration through the substituted mechanism as the protein-containing enzymes cannot be substituted. Thus, ozone provides an anti-tumor effect (N. Altman, 1995).
As discussed earlier, the growth of induced and inoculated tumors is associated with aggravation of oxygen supply, tissue hypoxia, and the pharmaceutical agents for treatment and prevention of hypoxic conditions in different diseases are mostly focused on the improvement of oxygen transportation to the tissues. In this connection the antihypoxic effect of ozone allows making a supposition that ozone can be also used as electron-acceptor compound - radiosensibilizator of hypoxic tumor cells. So, in cultures of skin cancer cells through ozone in vitro it came to sensibilization to radiation. Zanker at al. proved a synergetic effect of ozone and chemotherapeutic preparation 5-fluorine-urazila on cell cultures of large intestine cancer and mammary gland cancer.
At the same time, the use of ozone in oncology is restricted as in the most of cases it has been used empirically without rational basis and appropriate methods of control. It is known that the increased concentration of ozone in air contributes to pulmonary toxicity (V. Bocci, 1997). This problem was subject of several works, one of which showed an insignificant statistically unreliable increase in pulmonary tumors in mice of strain A/J that allowed making a conclusion that ozone is not a carcinogen for this strain (Witschi et al., 1999). At the same time, there are some investigations pointing out to inefficiency of ozone introduced intravenously in case of Erlich's carcinoma and sarcoma-180 or establishing an increase in pulmonary metastasis in mice with fibrosarcoma NR-FS (Kobayashi et al., 1987). The availability of such contradictory data can be explained by the fact that ozone therapy is dose-related and requires careful selection of conditions when ozone therapy is reasonable for use.
However, analyzing the mechanisms of the known anti-tumor physical-chemical methods we have formed an opinion that they all are focused on changing oxygen, free-radical homeostasis. From our point of view, ozone therapy (in particular, in the form of ozonated physiological saline) is the most physiological, effective and accessible method allowing influencing free-radical processes.
A very interesting investigation was conducted by the scientists from the Tcherkasskiy Engineering Institute G.S.Stolyarenko, V.N.Vyazovik and from the oncological health center M.T.Shaposhnikova, A.V.Gromiko. In the experiments in vitro they found such conditions (selection of ozone solvents, saturation time of solution by oxidant) when it was possible to observe lysis, cell pyknosis, numerous destruction of nuclear substance of tumor cells. The authors pointed out that the observed processes are similar to radiation as in the zone of tumors in liquid phase under exposure to radiation it also comes to synthesis of oxygen-containing oxidants or active oxygen forms. But in case of ozone-radical chemodestruction there is no burn, necrosis of normal cells (along the line of radiation) and apparently no influence due to effect of high-frequency fluctuations. The specialists called this process "mild radiation" (G.S. Stolyarenko, 2001).
Exactly thanks to the above-mentioned investigations we believe that ozone should occupy its own deserving niche in the complex treatment of malignant tumors.
Results of Experimental Investigations
A success of each therapeutic method based on the use of physical factors is defined by knowledge of the nature of disturbances on which these factors are focusing, on the one hand, and the mechanisms of their biological action, on the other hand.
Since in the metabolism of malignant tumor cells dominance belongs to the glycolysis, a phylogenetically older process than oxidation, tumor represents an original return to the earlier evolution level of development, a primitive and stable form of existence. In this connection it is logical to suppose that the creation of "evolution leap" - artificial oxidant environment of tumor - can contribute to disorganization of primitive anaerobic metabolism of neoplasma. The disturbance of free-radical balance at presence of tumor is manifested as the antioxidant activity of tumor tissue, on the one hand, and exhaustion of the antioxidant defense of the organism-tumor carrier, on the other hand.
It is considered that many anti-tumor methods can be divided into two groups. The methods of one group are focused on decreasing the level of free-radical oxidation. On the contrary, the therapeutic methods of the other group are somewhat connected with further intensification of free-radical oxidation in tumor cells.
A many-stage work on studying possible use of ozone in neoplasia "in vitro" has been made in the Central Scientific Research Laboratory of the Nizhny Novgorod Medical Academy (Russia) commencing 1994.
The first stage covered the experiment on the modeled systems of sarcoma-45 (not-metastasizing strain) and Pliss' lymphosarcoma (metastasizing strain). For local intensification of oxidative reactions in tumor tissue ozone was used in the form of ozonated physiological saline by methods of intra- and paratumoral administration. It is important to add that the use of ozonated physiological saline was started just after the transplanted tumor has reached a size of 1 cm in diameter, on the 14th day after inoculation when self-rejection of tumor tissue is already impossible. This is the important condition to investigate the effect of ozonated physiological saline. By the way, the experiment presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Ozone Applications (Cuba, 1997) was conducted incorrectly. The authors made a report that rectal application of ozone is able not only to stop the growth of tumor cell colonies, but also leads to complete resorption of tumor tissues of strain: RL-67, L-1210, LP-388, S-37 (Y. Rodriguez, 1997). However, the use of ozone was started after first 24 hours from tumor transplantation when there were no proofs about its transplantability in the organism of animal-recipient. Even if we would ignore this remark and consider that the transplanted cells were vital, the anti-tumor effect of ozone as reported by the authors is the effect in vitro.
It has been established that the local intra- and paratumoral introduction of ozone in the form of ozonated physiological saline creates a free-radical blockade of tumor, destroys its antioxidant defense, and as a result the intensified free-radical oxidation affects tumor considerably increasing the volume of necrotized tissue. That results primarily in restoration of prooxidant-antioxidant balance of the organism-tumor carrier.
As criterion of efficiency of any anticancerogenic method is considered prolongation of lifetime of experimental animals. This parameter for rats with sarcoma-45 was 27% and 30% for rats with Pliss' lymphosarcoma.
The second stage of the investigation was focused on studying a possible systemic effect of ozone introduced by parenteral methods and determination of the most effective concentration of ozone bubbled into the physiological solution for parenteral use. As criterion of efficiency serves a decrease in tumor diameter and at the same time a minimum disturbing effect of ozone on the integral organism. The experiments were conducted using ozonated physiological saline bubbled with ozone concentrations in gas mixture of 100, 400, 900 mcg/L. The use of ozonated physiological saline was started on reaching a tumor size of 2 cm in diameter. The appropriate ozone concentration was determined - 400 mcg/L - and used on the next stage of the investigation to study the combined effect of ozone and ionizing radiation. The mechanism of action of ionizing radiation (dominant in the anti-tumor therapy) is connected with the processes including free-radical reactions.
Ozone modifies the action of ionizing radiation through the oxygen effect. It increases radiosensitivity of tumor by means of its artificial oxygenation (overcome of radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells).
Ozone used before the radiation increases a therapeutic interval between the tumor and normal tissue that allows reducing the radiation dosage used and therefore decrease load on health tissues, mobilize antioxidant resources, restore the organism's own defense properties. Thus, ozone in high concentrations used by local methods produces an anticancerogenic effect, and in combination with ionizing radiation increases the efficiency of anti-tumor therapy. However, the "triumph" of ozone was disturbed by the following important fact.
It was established that ozone concentration of 900 mcg/L used by parenteral method contributes to resorption of primary tumor knot, but results in metastasis of lymphosarcoma in 17% of animals.
Although ozonated physiological saline leads to destruction of tumor, it also induces a powerful free-radical attack exceeding the organism's antioxidant potential and thereby creates cancerophilic conditions for normal tissues that leads to metastasis of tumor.
This discovery was confirmed both in the experimental works of foreign scientists and theoretical works of Russian scientists. Actually the stable prooxidant condition and the excessive level of lipid peroxidation in the cell create a "cancerogenic" situation inducing blastomatous transformation.
Anyone should know this and remember before using ozone in the oncology as well as that ozone therapy is dose-related and requires careful selection of conditions when ozone therapy is reasonable for use.
All anti-tumor physical-chemical methods are focused on changing oxygen, free-radical homeostasis.
Ozone therapy (in particular, in the form of ozonated physiological saline) is the most physiological, effective and accessible method allowing influencing free-radical processes. Ozone in the complex treatment of malignant tumors must occupy its own deserving niche.
(S.P.Aljohina, T.G.Tscherbatyuk "Ozone therapy: clinical and experimental aspects" - Nizhny Novgorod, 2003)



- OZONE IN OPTHALMOLOGY

OZONE THERAPY IN THE OPTHALMOLOGY

Here you can find the list of eye diseases and recommended methods of local ozone therapy. The systemic methods of ozone therapy (minor and major AHT with ozone, ozonated saline drips) are indicated in case of generalized process for disinfection, desintoxication, anti-ischemic defense, normalization of the oxido-reduction system, immunomodulation.








- OZONE IN COSMETIC


OZONE THERAPY IN THE COSMETOLOGY
The progress of today medical science is oriented to development of new technologies allowing not only highly effective treating diseases, but also preventing them, increasing the vital potential of the organism.
One of such progressive approaches is ozone therapy.
It has a wide range of action in surgery, dermatology, urology, internal medicine. It would be strange if ozone would not be put into use in cosmetology - one of the most progressive fields of its application. In methods of treatment with ozone a particular attention is paid to improvement of microcirculation, oxygenation, energy supply of cells, proper trophism and protection of skin. Many cosmetic problems - acne, teleangiectatic rosacea, outflowing of the hair, wrinkles, allergy, cellulites, fatness - are reflecting the internal state of the organism, therefore they should be treated not only from the outside, but also inside. And this task can be successfully done by ozone producing a detoxication, antimicrobial, antiviral effect and increasing the organism's immunity.
Ozone is a unique agent preserving and restoring the natural beauty and health of skin. Ozone therapy does not mask defects of skin, but normalizes its natural functions and stimulates its own work.
The mechanism of action of ozone can be demonstrated on the example of its use within a complex program for skin rejuvenescence.
Aging at the level of epidermis is induced by inhibition of proliferous cell division, exhaustion of epidermis, increase in keratin layer, decrease in elasticity and increase in residual epidermis deformation ("crow's-foot"), formation of deeper wrinkles.
Skin functions properly and looks young only in case of proper trophism and division of epidermis cells. The natural mechanism of cell trophism is realized by means of tissue liquid, lymph and blood plasma.
The functional efficiency of this network and quality of epidermis trophism are considerably decreased under the influence of negative factors of environment Aging at the level of dermis is induced by changes in the structure of collagenous and elastic fibers. On exposure of collagen to free radicals it comes to "together-sewing" of collagen, therefore collagenase enzyme responsible for collagen degradation in normal conditions is not able to realize its function. It comes to accumulation of pathologically modified collagenous fibers, a decrease in their water-retaining ability and in the total level of water in dermis. It comes to a functional disturbance of hyaluronidase, the specific enzyme producing an effect on hyaluronic acid and defining skin penetrance.
Owing to aging it comes to a decrease in the activity of some key enzymes of respiratory chain and intensity of cytochromoxidase synthesis that leads to energy deficiency in cells. It comes to inhibition of epidermis cell regeneration, exhaustion and fragmentation of elastin fibers, and a result of all these pathological processes is formation of wrinkles.
Skin aging can be inhibited, and skin structure can be restored through neutralization of the above-mentioned pathological processes thereby eliminating the reason, but not only the consequence - formation of wrinkles. Exactly this is the target of ozone therapy. Ozone is a substance created by the nature, produces a complex, integral effect on the human body. For treatment of "problem" skin and wrinkles it is recommended to use the methods of local and systemic ozone therapy: by local route - subcutaneous ozone injections and ozonized olive oil in the form of face packs and for massage; by systemic route - intravenous drop-by-drop infusions (drips) of ozonated solutions, major and minor autohaemotherapy with ozone, rectal ozone insufflations. The approach to treatment and choice of methods are strictly individual for each patient.
Ozone introduced subcutaneously activates metabolic processes in macroergic cells, normalizes active membrane transport (K-Na pump), penetrance, deformability, viscosity and electric properties of membranes. At the same time, it comes to an increase in the intensity of energy processes: on the one hand, through the increased utilization of oxygen by cells owing to activation of aerobic glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, B-oxidation of fatty acids, and on the other hand - through optimization of the oxygen-transport function of blood (at presence of ozone the erythrocytes are able to bond and transfer 10 times more oxygen and more easier release it to tissues). Besides, it comes to stopping of "oxidative stress", activation of the antioxidant defense system and neutralization of the destroying effect of free radicals. It comes to stimulation of protein synthesis including its own collagen and elastin, an increase in the regenerative potential of proliferative skin layer. It comes to an increase in tissue liquid volume in deep layers and restoration of the natural skin ability to retain water, and as a result, it comes to ironing and disappearance of "crow's-foot", deeper wrinkles, and the rejuvenescence effect is well manifested.
The essential difference of ozone therapy from other cosmetic remedies and procedures is its dual action from the outside and inside of the organism that leads to normalization of trophism, oxygenation, moistening, protection and exchange restoration of skin. It helps to achieve general cleaning, sanation and tonization, but not only a temporary cosmetic effect.
Thus, ozone therapy is a revolutionary remedy for rejuvenescence allowing to restore the barrier, immune, water-retaining, reparative and separative functions of skin as well as to improve its structure.
Especially noticeable and fast results through ozone therapy are observed in patients with diagnosis "skin stress".
The most frequent method of administration of ozone for rejuvenescence is by intravenous drop-by-drop route and in the form of ozone bath "torso". This is convenient as during the ozonization the cosmetologist can perform other procedures on face, neck, d?collet? that saves the patient's time.
For the organism's cleaning, elimination of roughages and toxins including stress toxins producing a negative effect on skin the complex treatment of skin fading contains global intestinal cleaning. On completing this procedure it is recommended to perform rectal ozone insufflation thereby creating beneficial conditions for regeneration of "healthy" intestinal flora and producing a beneficial effect on the whole organism.
For correction of available signs of skin fading after 35 years of great benefit can be the rejuvenescence courses of ozone therapy in the form of subcutaneous injections at the places of wrinkle localization and other places with manifested skin fading (chin, cheeks, neck). After the procedure it is recommended to perform manual massage - plastithermic or cosmetic for equal distribution of ozone-oxygen gas mixture.
The well-manifested effect is observed already after 3-4 procedures: ironing of fine wrinkles, an increase in skin turgor, a decrease in face pastosity, improvement of face color, appearance of glow. The patients report about a decrease in skin dryness, disappearance of skin constriction sensation even after washing. Both the patients and doctors notice a lifting effect in submaxillary and cheen-chin areas. And what is very important is improvement of general feeling.
Acne disease. Ozone therapy is used in the form of local ozone injections onto inflammatory areas (infiltrates, pustular elements). In some cases it is recommended to perform primary focal sanation by method of electrocoagulation, opening and elimination of purulent content, and then ozone therapy. The depth and number of injections under one focus depends on the size of inflammatory element. Up to 5 ml of ozone-oxygen gas mixture is injected into each point.
On average one treatment course consists of 5-6 procedures at an interval of 5 days. All patients show clinical improvement already after one procedure. This manifests in infiltrate softening, a decrease in swelling, exudation, hyperemia, painfulness. Treatment time is reduced by 2-3 times as compared with traditional methods.
Any complications and side effects are not observed.
In case of torpid course of acne disease, diffused process the most effective method is autohaemotherapy with ozone considerably increasing the immunity and producing an antibacterial effect.
Ozone is also an integral part of postoperative rehabilitation for prevention of complications. Ozone helps to intensify lymphodrainage, restore microcirculation, improve tissue trophism, stimulate metabolic processes.
The effect is noticeable already after one-two procedures: a decrease in edema, tissue thickening and painfulness. After 4-5 procedures it comes to restoration of skin sensitivity, a decrease in hyperemia and disappearance of constriction sensation in the area of postoperative sutures. More comfortable sensations of the patient have a positive influence on his evaluation of results of the performed operation.
After the wide practical introduction of such methods as middle and deep chemical peelings, laser and mechanical skin grinding, injection contour plasty we are facing a serious problem - hypertrophic scars. Ozone gas injections around the scar induce disappearance of skin constriction sensation, paling and softening of scars and their further resorption. As a result, it comes to significant ironing of scar surface, restoration of tissue elasticity.
Obviously, ozone therapy in the form of injections allows solving many serious problems arising in the practice of dermatocosmetologist. Of great importance is the fact that the result of similar procedures is not only solution of esthetic problems being a reason for a visit to doctor, but also improvement in general feeling of patients through the many-sided non-specific effect of ozone on tissues and the organism as a whole.
OZONE THERAPY WITHIN A COMPLEX TREATMENT OF CELLULITES AND FIGURE MODELING
Edematous-fibrosclerotic panniculopathy or cellulites is an exclusively female problem and represents a pathological state of fat cells (adipocytes). Among the reasons and risk factors inducing a change of fatty tissue are numbered genetic, family, national features, pubescence period, pregnancy and delivery, hormonal disturbances and intake of contraceptive preparations, age and life way.
According to various sources, 80% to 95% of women are suffering from cellulites. The affected areas are thighs and buttocks, more rarely - back and arms.
The initial stage of cellulites is characterized by microcirculatory disorder, swelling, stagnation of liquid in subcutaneous tissue. So, it comes to edematous form of cellulites that in case of further progression is transformed to fibrosclerotic form.
Fatty tissue fulfills a function of energy depot in the organism. Each fat cell is closely surrounded by capillary network, therefore it is in continuous and close contact with blood. In healthy fatty tissues the adipocytes receive a sufficient quantity of oxygen and nutritious substances, and products of cell activity are removed via cell membrane and taken away by blood flow. A disturbance of this mechanism leads to development of local hypoxia, toxicosis and acidosis and in further to cellulites. In conditions of oxygen deficit in acidic environment it comes to active growth of connective tissue that surrounds fat cells by membrane and forms cellulites small knots (micronodules). Fat cells degenerate, make groups and form in connective tissue thick conglomerates (macronodules) that block circulation and lymphatic flow, it comes to calcination of fat cells. Edematous-fibrosclerotic panniculopathy is characterized by development of microangiopathies and disturbances of lymphatic structure manifested as lymphangiectasia and lymph edema. On the initial stage of cellulites a cosmetic effect in skin is manifested in the form of insignificant hilliness, the so-called "orange peel" that in case of further progression is transformed to "grape bunches".
Thus, the main mechanism of cellulites development is microcirculatory disorder that leads to edema, which in turn aggravates hemodynamics closing circulus vitiosus.
Cellulites treatment should be focused:
·       Firstly, on removal of disease reason;
·       Secondly, on correction of pathogenetic mechanisms of disease development;
·       Thirdly, on liquidation of its appearances and consequences.
All these tasks can be successfully fulfilled by ozone.
It is mostly rational to start cellulites treatment on early stages when it only represents an esthetic problem. In this case ozone can be used as a monotherapy, and it takes a few procedures in the form of subcutaneous ozone injections to achieve a good cosmetic effect. The program of cellulites therapy combines local ozone therapy (subcutaneous ozone injections, massage and wrapping on ozonized olive oil) and systemic ozone therapy (intravenous infusion of ozonated solutions, patent's autoblood) that provides a more noticeable and stable result. The parenteral methods restore hormonal background, protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, quickly remove consequences of stress and chronic tiredness, balance the processes of excitation and inhibition of nervous system, increase oxygen supply of the whole organism.
Treatment variants should be determined individually depending on the stage and form of cellulites, volume of affected surface, age, associated pathology, individual features of the organism (pain sensitivity etc.). The usual course of therapy includes a certain number of sessions (from 10 to 20) with frequency 1-3 times a week. Gas is introduced subcutaneously by means of special microneedles with length of 4 or 13 mm. Positive results of treatment are observed already after 3-5 sessions and well manifested, the patients start to notice lightness in the lower limbs and a decrease in pastosity and edema. On the next stage it comes to reduction or complete disappearance of "orange peel", a decrease in volumes of subcutaneous tissue.
Through ozone therapy it comes to a fast-progressive decrease in fat layers, fatty tissue becomes more thick and compact. Good results can be also achieved in the formation of body contours (non-surgical modeling of figure - non-surgical liposuction): correction of double chin, face oval, forms of breast, thighs and buttocks.
Ozone facilitates fast elimination of fat from stomach, particularly from its lower part that undergoes a little change through traditional methods of correction and practically no change through diet therapy and general slimming.
The essential difference of ozone therapy from other forms of lipolysis (mechanical, electric, ultrasound, chemical) is that ozonolipolysis or ozonolysis (destruction of fatty tissue by ozone) combines both a local and systemic detoxication effect, intensifies fat splitting and utilization. It comes to stimulation of cellular processes, an increase in the oxygen-transport function of blood and accordingly the oxidoreduction potential of the organism. Ozone introduced by parenteral route does not only activate lipid exchange, but also initiates the mechanism of natural processing of the organism own energy resources i.e. fat. Ozone stimulates B-oxidation of fatty acids, energy production and activity of the hepatocytes focused on processing of lipid fractions; on this way liver is not affected. Under the action of ozone in the hepatocytes it comes to activation of structural-functional mechanisms of transformation of fat energy substrates to carbohydrate ones. Ozonization induces production of catalase and peroxides involved in the catabolism of fatty acids and synthesis of glycogen and glucose from products of this catabolism i.e. ozone performs the antioxidant and detoxication functions. The anticellulites effect and slimming are realized on a background of tonus restoration, strengthening and tonization of all tissues exposed to ozone therapy. Skin is not hanging like after usual slimming and other methods of cellulites treatment, on the contrary - it becomes more elastic, its appearance improves. It comes to normalization of connective tissue structure as ozone has a fibrinolytic effect, a decrease in the level of hypertrophic adipocytes and metabolism restoration in subcutaneous tissue.
As a rule, cellulites is not an independent pathology, but manifests on a background of the main disease owing to the organism's intoxication. Therefore, without removing a reason it is impossible to cure a consequence. Ozone producing a complex effect on the organism acts on the molecular, cellular, systemic levels and treats both actual diseases and their consequence i.e. cellulites. Ozone therapy provides remission for half to one year, but not only 1-2 months like traditional treatment. So, ozone is used to treat cellulites, but not only to achieve a temporary cosmetic effect.
Based on the results of numerous clinical investigations it can be claimed that for today ozone therapy is one of the most effective methods for prevention and treatment of cellulites. Within a short time (less than 1,5 months) one specialist performs more than 300 procedures that allows completely covering the costs of ozone device and accessories.
The gathered experience allows making a conclusion that ozone therapy is characterized by simplicity of application, good tolerance by patients, practically complete absence of side-effects, high efficiency and reasonable prices for appropriate equipment. This is a very profitable method of treatment.
Thus, ozone therapy in conditions of cosmetic salon allows:
·       To widen the spectrum of medical services;
·       To increase the salon image;
·       To attract new patients, increase their flow;
·       To reduce treatment time;
·       To improve efficiency of cosmetic procedures;
·       To achieve a stable positive result;


    To increase the salon income.